3.10. Development and Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Cocoa Consumption in University Students
Vicente, F. *; Saldaña-Ruíz, S.; Rabanal, M.; Rodríguez-Lagunas, M.J.; Pereira, P.; Pérez-Cano, F.J.; Castell, M.
Although cocoa has been recognized as a valuable source of polyphenols, epidemiological studies show it makes a low contribution to total polyphenol intake. These results could be due to the lack of thorough Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) intended to assess the consumption of cocoa/chocolate products, thus its contribution may well be underestimated.
The aim of the present work was to validate a FFQ designed to assess cocoa consumption in a prone population—university students.
A sample of 50 students was recruited to complete the developed 90-item questionnaire (C-FFQ), a validated questionnaire about chocolate and energy drink intake (EFSA-Q) as well as a 24-h dietary recall (24HDR). To study agreement between the C-FFQ and the EFSA-Q/24HDR, the correlation between data (Spearman’s test) and the comparison of consumption frequency data (Wilcoxon test) were calculated. In addition, Bland Altman and the quintile classification analyses were performed.
Significant correlations between the C-FFQ and the EFSA-Q/24HDR for the most common cocoa and chocolate products were observed. A large variety of cocoa/chocolate products frequently consumed by the participants were detected by the C-FFQ and 24HDR, whereas they were not included in the EFSA-Q. When considering percentile classification, the majority of the individuals were classified in the same/adjacent quintile for the C-FFQ and the EFSA-Q or 24HDR.
In conclusion, the developed 90-item FFQ can be considered as a valid option for assessing the consumption frequency of cocoa- and chocolate-derived products. As far as we know, this is the most extensive questionnaire developed in relation to a wide range of several products containing chocolate in a traditional European diet. The use of this FFQ will allow individuals to be reasonably classified according to their cocoa consumption and therefore an evaluation of the impact of such intake on health and lifestyle in further studies.